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Inter Process Communication-Message Queue

Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system. This allows a program to handle many user requests at the same time. Since even a single user request may result in multiple processes running in the operating system on the user's behalf, the processes need to communicate with each other. The IPC interfaces make this possible. Each IPC method has its own advantages and limitations so it is not unusual for a single program to use all of the IPC methods. Message Based Communication Messages are a very general form of communication. Messages can be used to send and receive formatted data streams between arbitrary processes. Messages may have types. This helps in message interpretation. The type may specify appropriate permissions for processes. Usually at the receiver end, messages are put in a queue. Messages may also be formatted in …
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Inter Process Communication-Shared Memory

Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system. This allows a program to handle many user requests at the same time. Since even a single user request may result in multiple processes running in the operating system on the user's behalf, the processes need to communicate with each other. The IPC interfaces make this possible. Each IPC method has its own advantages and limitations so it is not unusual for a single program to use all of the IPC methods. Shared Memory Communication One very commonly employed strategy for IPC is to use shared memory. Ordinarily, processes use memory areas within the scope of virtual memory space. However, memory management systems ensure that every process has a well-defined and distinct data and code area. For shared memory communication, one process would write into a certain commonly accessed area a…

Inter Process Communication(IPC)- Pipes

Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system. This allows a program to handle many user requests at the same time. Since even a single user request may result in multiple processes running in the operating system on the user's behalf, the processes need to communicate with each other. The IPC interfaces make this possible. Each IPC method has its own advantages and limitations so it is not unusual for a single program to use all of the IPC methods. pipe In computer programming, especially in UNIX operating systems, a pipe is a technique for passing information from one program process to another. Unlike other forms of interprocess communication (IPC), a pipe is one-way communication only. Basically, a pipe passes a parameter such as the output of one process to another process which accepts it as input. The system temporarily ho…

Dining Philosophers Problem

The dining philosophers problem is another classic synchronization problem which is used to evaluate situations where there is a need of allocating multiple resources to multiple processes. Consider there are five philosophers sitting around a circular dining table. The dining table has five chopsticks and a bowl of rice in the middle as shown in the below figure.

Banker's Algorithm

Banker's algorithm is a deadlock avoidance algorithm. It is named so because this algorithm is used in banking systems to determine whether a loan can be granted or not. Consider there are n account holders in a bank and the sum of the money in all of their accounts is S. Everytime a loan has to be granted by the bank, it subtracts the loan amount from the total money the bank has. Then it checks if that difference is greater than S. It is done because, only then, the bank would have enough money even if all the n account holders draw all their money at once. Banker's algorithm works in a similar way in computers. Whenever a new process is created, it must exactly specify the maximum instances of each resource type that it needs. Let us assume that there are n processes and m resource types. Some data structures are used to implement the banker's algorithm. They are: Available: It is an array of length m. It represents the number of available resources of each type. If…